Different Kinds of Law Firms in Thailand

Thailand absolutely plays host to innumerable foreign nationals either operating for a few multinational businesses operating inside the country or as retirees. Over the course of their life in Thailand, there are times that the services of a legal expert would be looked for advice and legal help – it can be a matter regarding visa, immigration, work-permit, marriage, real estate or assets, and others. without complete know-how of the thai laws, it might be difficult for any foreign national to do things not worrying if such moves have legal outcome or not.

the best thing about Thailand is that it caters to such need as there are some of law companies presenting legal help and services to foreigners. however, it is crucial that the foreign national recognize the numerous types of law firms and legal service vendors as against the nature of the legal help they want so that it will ensure that they end up with the law company that would be able to accomplish the legal goals and reduce if not get rid of the dangers of being legally pursued in Thailand.

the following is a general guideline you can actually use while the need for law company or legal assistance arises. primarily based on the criminal troubles to be addressed, there are distinct forms of companies and businesses supplying legal help inside the kingdom of Thailand.

Local law firms
these local law companies are able and powerful in local litigation and handling cases related to problems in the Thai judicial system. For a lot of these firms, they have a tendency to limit their services to local Thai nationals and businesses. They don’t frequently solicit business from foreign nationals due particularly to language barrier. Their subject of information and revel in is often concentrated in Thai topics concerning Thai nationals. in lots of cases, the local law firms do no longer have the know-how, heritage and experience in criminal problems applicable to overseas nationals running, doing business, or dwelling in Thailand. The local law firms have able and capable trial lawyers however won’t be able to manage the case of foreign customers due to language barrier.

International law firms
The fact that there are innumerable foreign nationals living, working or doing business in Thailand, some of international law firms were set up with a view to cater to the needs of the overseas nationals who may additionally have some issues with Thai law in many unique areas. international law firms working in Thailand are generally directly or not directly affiliated with big-named multinational law corporations. these corporations help multinational agencies with great overseas legal issues. many of the customers of these international law firms are company instead of private individuals or small-to-medium enterprises. The knowledge of the lawyers offering services for international law firms are on business, securities, exchange, intellectual property, and corporate matters.

local Thai law corporations With foreign partners or Managers
some law firms in Thailand try and bridge the gap among local law firms serving local Thai nationals with local law cases and international law firms serving corporate clients on topics involving foreign and local laws in commerce, trade, and many others. hence, there are local law firms that have engaged a foreign partner or associate to act as a bridge or liaison between nearby lawyers and foreign clients. This form of law firm facilitates foreign nationals with legal cases regarding local legal guidelines – marriage, work permit, visa requirements, and many others. The presence of a foreign partner or accomplice eliminates the language barrier problem as they may be able to speak properly in English making the discussion manner with the customer a lot less difficult.

Pseudo law firms
This form of law company is considered a less expensive opportunity outside the range of traditional law firms and they’re referred to as pseudo law firms or legal service providers. In trendy, those companies are operated by means of Thai or overseas nationals who’re non-attorneys. The services they offer may be beneficial to customers relying at the instances of the case. these firms are able to provide very basic assistance which does no longer demand legal understanding and experience. they may or might not have licensed lawyers or may be working with Thai licensed lawyers in collaboration and not as their team of workers. The form of legal assistance pseudo law firms can handle normally involves consumer troubles, commercial enterprise brokerage and the like. dealing with pseudo law firms ought to be achieved with incredible caution as customers may emerge as in extra legal trouble if advised wrongly with the aid of the non-legal professionals in these corporations.

Thailand Visa

Visa Run

One of the motives that Thailand’s government is currently cracking down on overstaying aliens and is being strict about returning foreigners (called falang in the local language) is the so-referred to as “visa run.” At this factor, the authorities is now ready to impose blacklisting on foreigners which have illegally stayed in Thailand past what they were allowed in their preliminary visa application.

What’s a Visa Run?
Because Thailand calls for tourists to go out the country first and follow for a visa extension afterwards in a neighboring country, travelers, for many years, were capable of make the most a loophole within the legal language and enabled themselves to stay past what their visa stipulates while not having to definitely observe for an extension. All they need to do is just take a journey to Malaysia, Cambodia, Vietnam and different neighboring nations, spend a while there, and go back to the kingdom after some time to get a free 30-day extension.

A visa run is viable due to Thailand’s lax rules toward tourists. entering Thailand as a traveler automatically offers you a free 30 days of stay inside the country, and then you will – theoretically – be required to report to immigration and get an extension to your visa as laws require.

For some cause, sure parties have seen an opportunity in having to go out Thailand and observe for an extension in a consulate out of doors the kingdom to get a free, no-frills-worried extension to their visitor visas. This presents plenty of problems for immigration officials.

Visa Runs are used by SOME Foreigners to work in Thailand
One of these problems is overstaying. Over the a long time, numerous foreigners have exploited the visa exemptions for people reputedly coming into as tourists so as to acquire unlawful employment within the kingdom. They locate work as expatriates in Thailand, stay for an initial 30 days as allowed via the visa exemptions, after which depart the country to meet the exit requirement of the visa exemption. They then go back and hold operating illegally.

Doing so really exposes them to risk and exploitation. As unlawful foreign employees, they do now not revel in the legal safety that is afforded those who undergo the process to reap a right work allow from the kingdom’s government.

these foreigners stay for as long as possible until they’re discovered out by immigration officials. Even then, they’re only required to pay a fine (which others have likely saved up for) and they can continue staying in the country. With the new guidelines in place, but, that is sure to change.

Doing It Legally is the safest way to Do It
in case you’re planning to work in Thailand, investing in the legal procedure to achieve a proper visa or work allow is the best thing that you can take in this matter. If discovered without a proper visa or work permit, you may find yourself deported and banned from getting into the kingdom once more for a particular range of years. The longer you have overstayed, the longer your ban is so, if you don’t want to be stored far from coming into the beautiful country of Thailand, you then should do things within the legal way.


Why Investing in Thailand is a Good Risk.


overseas investors placed their money to work foreign places for numerous motives. Diversification, in the end, is the mark of a successful investor. however, one pressing problem is safety for the investor. Is Thailand really a safe and solid country for businessmen to invest in? the answer is: yes, without a doubt!

Ongoing Infrastructure rapid improvement

Thailand’s economic system is one of the most stable within the Asia-Pacific area. it is swiftly growing. In reality, the current government has already started out a prime infrastructure upgrade particularly in the road and rail networks that the country makes use of as a main shape of inter-city transportation. in the next ten years, Thailand will step up its function as the best ASEAN hub with international railways connecting the country to China, Myanmar and Singapore.

This means that investment in Thailand is going to flow in. With an global railway machine in place, this may also open up numerous new opportunities for businessmen who are already running a project in the country as demand will growth for services and products in the hospitality and tourism sectors of the nation.

Treaty Agreements with multiple nations

As we’ve got mentioned in our last article, Thailand has financial agreements with america, Japan and Australia, among others. Nationals of these countries who determine to make investments within the Thai economy get to experience benefits that businessmen from different non-treaty nations don’t have.

for example, American, japanese and Australian enterprises entities are dealt with as Thai nationals as a ways because the law for agencies are involved. They enjoy majority possession in their own organizations, whose board contributors can include of a lesser quantity of Thai nationals than in companies whose countries don’t have financial agreements with Thailand.

another advantage added about by these agreements is the reduction of tariffs and import duties on specific imports between Thailand and those three international locations. through the end of these agreements, imports between Thailand, and the three signatory nations may be reduced to a bare minimal or can even grow to be duty free.

Government assist for overseas investment

The Thai authorities itself lends its support to overseas investors. In fact, groups whose majority stockholders are foreigners can get incentives like tax breaks and import obligation exemptions from the Board of investment. one of the sectors that offer incentives to overseas businesses is the manufacturing sector, however the variety of sectors wherein foreign buyers can spend money on and experience incentives is a lot. it’d be an awesome idea to test with the Board of investment at the list of particular organizations in which foreigners can enjoy tax incentives and exemptions.

Competitive labor

The great and the cost of workers in Thailand is highly competitive specifically inside the manufacturing sector, which has end up the primary contributor to the local economy. In different words, it’s far less luxurious for foreigners to invest in and maintain a business in Thailand as early as now.

Thailand is swiftly growing, and its economy turning into extra solid every year. mixed with ongoing infrastructure traits and competitive labor, Thailand is one of the first-class locations for foreigners to make an investment in.


Starting a Business in Thailand? Here’s what the Law Say

Thailand is one of the top locations in Asia to set up a business. it is one of the founding members of the association of South East Asian nations, and is placed strategically within the continent. you may recall it as the gateway to the rest of Asia, from which your business may want to extend to the other countries within asia. similarly, Thailand’s infrastructure is remarkable. It has 7 international airports, fast internet connection, professional educated manpower access, high-tech metropolitan transportation and it is well centrally located with other asean regions .

Thailand is a foreigner-friendly country. Its tourism is most busiest in Asia. however, when it comes to business and investment, the country is quite strict on how foreigners can make or begin a business in its jurisdiction. however, there are incentives to investing in the kingdom as the Board of investment offers exemptions, and even tax breaks for international organizations.

The foreign business Act of 1999

B.E. 2542, or often called the foreign business Act of 1999, is the regulation that governs overseas investment and businesses in Thailand. For purposes of discussion, the term “foreigner”, in the context of the law, refers not only to real persons who do not keep Thai citizenship however also entities that are majority-owned via foreigners in addition to agencies which have been registered out of the country.

The three business Annexes under BE 2542

The foreign enterprise Act divides business niches into three annexes – Annex 1, Annex 2 and Annex 3.

Annex 1 includes niches wherein foreign corporations can’t start a business in. these are niches that deal with local tradition and require an understanding of Thai way of life. The niches consist of herbal medication manufacture, rice farming, real estate development, shery, livestock and the trade of antiques which are sourced in Thailand, amongst others. but, agencies registered in countries that have treaties with Thailand can be exempt from this limitation.

Annex 2 include agencies that issue countrywide protection and security, as well as trade which have cultural and artistic effect to Thailand, and those that may have an effect on the local environment and Thailand’s natural or ecological resources. Any foreign company that needs to interact in alternate in any of these niches might need to secure a allow from the Minister of commerce. In incorporating the entity, 40% of the business’ shareholders should be Thai locals. The Minister of commerce can reduce this to 25% if the company makes an application.

Annex 3 incorporates companies that the Thai government thinks will actually lose to foreign competition. these organizations consist of legal, accounting, architectural and engineering services, in addition to hospitality services, advertising and marketing, farming, and food and drinks. it might take a license from the Director general of the Ministry of commerce to permit a foreign entity to perform in these groups.

With BE 2452, it is clearly easy now for foreigners to begin their own business in Thailand. The law lays out the standards and necessities very clearly for these businessmen. This is yet another purpose why Thailand is one of the best countries in Asia for foreigners to invest in.

Thailand Visa

Thailand Elite Visa Program

One of the most hard processes in getting into to a country is getting the right visa approved for you via that country’s authorities. Thailand isn’t an exception. even though it is really friendly to travelers and those coming in for business, the country does have a specific process for obtaining a visa.

With the Thailand Elite Visa initiative, the process turns into a lot less complicated for you as you’ve got nearly everything that you need to get visa approval. Plus, you furthermore may get to experience extraordinary benefits as a member that other travelers can’t get access to without enrolling in the application.

The Perks of   the Thailand Elite Visa program

The Visa service is part and parcel of your club in the Thailand Elite service, wherein you get to enjoy one-of-a-kind Elite private Assistant service for everything of your membership. travelling to Thailand allows you to apply these Assistants to do your bidding, and to make sure that you are able to get what you require. you’re a friend of Thailand, and you have the privilege of experiencing the country the way that regular foreigners are not able to do.

Now, under the Thailand Elite Visa program, those Elite private Assistants will take your place free of charge within the mandatory appearance before the Thai Immigration Bureau in Chaengwattana, Bangkok office. this is very handy if you are in Thailand for urgent business matters that make it not possible for you to appear before the Bureau in the 90-day time limit. you could avail of the Elite personal Assistants for your appearance everywhere in Thailand, however there are more expenses associated with the service outside Chaengwattana, Bangkok.

typically, you would need to go out the country sooner or later and go back to conform with the requirements of a more than one entry visa. The Thailand Elite Visa application gives you the Privilege entry Visa which waives that requirement. the program is designed to offer members the distinctive privilege of staying within the country like a regular Thai resident or citizen. The Privilege access Visa is legitimate for 5 years and can be renewed without difficulty along with your membership in Thailand Elite.

With the Visa to your disposal, you can stay as much as 365 days in Thailand without having to leave for a few weeks within that period as otherwise required through normal visas. in case you initially applied for a 90-day stay and you want to extend, you may try this effortlessly with this Visa as long as your membership is legitimate and active.

The Visa is exclusive to Thailand Elite members. As a member, all you need to do is apply for the visa on the Royal Thai Embassy or the Royal Thai Consulate- general, in addition to in Phuket international Airport and the Chiang Mai office of the Thai Immigration Bureau.

With the Privilege entry Visa you may follow for as a member of Thailand Elite, you could concentrate more on doing your business within the country or really to enjoy the country with out thinking about regulatory requirements.

Thailand Visa

Visa Free Travel To Thailand

If you need to go to Thailand, you would possibly want to analyze first what the requirements are for foreigners getting into the kingdom of Thailand. luckily, as it is a totally tourist-friendly country, you may discover it easier to go to Thailand as compared to visiting other nations within the Asia-Pacific. there may be really a way so that you can enter Thailand while complying with a minimum number of requirements.

Visa Exemption

If you are from the US, then you may really enter Thailand without having to apply for a Visa. this is why many nationals of the USA select Thailand for their vacations – the US has an agreement with Thailand for a visa-free entry for tourists for a limited quantity of days. in particular, US nationals can live on the kingdom of Thailand for a duration of 30 days by air or land without making use of for a visa. because of this people staying for a holiday may be positive that they will be able to capable of achieve this without being rejected by the Thailand authorities. not often does a vacation go as much as 30 days, and that’s already long sufficient to unwind and get your bearings returned. in the event that you decide to stay longer than 30 days, that is when you’ll have to apply for a visa from the Thai immigration.

If an individual does not depart Thailand prior to expiration of his/her airport permit or visa, the individual is in the country illegally. In order to depart Thailand, it will be necessary to pay an overstay fine. The fine for overstaying a visa is 500 Baht per day, up to a maximum of 20,000 Baht. The fine is payable to the Immigration Bureau, the Suvarnabhumi Airport Immigration office, or other departure point.

Other requirements

First, you may want to show files that you’ll be exiting the country inside 30 days. the kingdom wishes evidence that you may no longer overstay beyond the 30-day limit so one can approve your entry. because of this you’ll ought to present airline or train tickets that provide evidence that you’ll be exiting Thailand after 30 days. That should be easy to procure – you could book your self ahead of time, and simply re-book ought to you exchange your thoughts and increase your stay.

You need to additionally provide financial statements that prove your financial capability to fend for your self at some point of your stay in the country. each person is required to show economic statements of THB10,000 for anyone. For families, there must be an accumulative capability of THB20,000.

last but not the least, you have to have a passport that is valid for as a minimum six months from your date of entry into Thailand. British topics, however, can enter using their 12-month prolonged passports as reflected by new measures added within this yr.

No Working Visa

Even as it is a not unusual practice to enter a country on a tourist visa and secure work at some point of that term, this type of practice is unlawful in Thailand and unlawful workers are actively prosecuted. you will need to use a separate visa if you are going to Thailand for employment. You need help out of your corporation with the intention to enter Thailand as an employee, and you will have to renew the visa after one year.

if you are interested by having a vacation in Thailand, you will definitely be relieved to understand approximately the 30-day Visa free entry into the country. This arrangement relieves you of lots of the problem of paperwork just to have every week-lengthy vacation in Thailand.

Intellectual Property Phuket

Thailand IP Law Facts

Intellectual property laws are very crucial for businessmen. if you are looking to create an organization within the kingdom of Thailand, then it pays to read about Thailand’s intellectual property laws and guidelines. It’s a very complicated topic, however, and may span several articles.
For starters, however, allow us to provide some brief and fundamental facts about Thailand’s IP laws.

File for Protection as early as possible

this is true for trademarks. Thailand’s system gives extra importance to early submission of trademarks. this is to help avoid hijacking of marks particularly if you’ve already created that mark in your home country and is simply seeking to move to Thailand. before you even infuse capital into a local Thai unit of your company, make sure to have the following trademarks registered first so that you can benefit protection of the law.

IP protection is valid for a long time

Trademark protection in Thailand expires most effective after 10 years, which is a very long time indeed. You get to move approximately your company without having to fear about your trademark’s safety. when the protection does expire, you may renew it again for every other 10 years, so on and so forth. but, in order for the protection to stay legitimate, your company should actively use it to your merchandise or branding activities due to the fact a dormancy of a minimum of three consecutive years will result to untimely expiration.

There are Three classified Patents

there may be the usual patent that gives 20 years of protection to a totally innovative invention. second, Thai law additionally offers protection to designs with patents which can be valid for 10 years. ultimately, there’s the “petty patent” for minor innovations, and it offers 6 years of protection to the invention.

Thailand’s IP laws offer Exemptions for certain Patent matter

There are innovations and breakthroughs that cannot be patented in Thailand. these subject matters include animal and plant extracts, computer applications, and processes used in medication and commercial enterprise. those are intended to be shared freely to the general public because of the nature of their use.

Copyright protection is for a lifetime in Thailand

much like the rest of the world, copyright protection is in place so long as the author of the work remains alive. within the occasion that the creator passes away, his or her property can still claim copyright protection over the copyrighted work for fifty extra years.

Thailand calls for Patent application for Holders of international Patents

keeping an international patent does no longer automatically entail patent protection under Thai laws. One has to rather apply for individual patents in Thailand so that you can guard the subject matter covered by using the international patents. Holders can, but, avail of priority applications to expedite the procedure in the country.
this is for now. these are five brief information about how intellectual property laws and policies work in Thailand. hopefully, those 5 brief information have given you a basic idea of the way Thailand views intellectual belongings and what rights you may have as a author, inventor or designer.

Is Making Money from my Condo Allowed?

The condominium is one of the best investment for any foreigner in Thailand. It’s the best the form of real estate that expats and foreign retirees can put their investment into, as according to the laws of Thailand. The 1979 condo Act of Thailand lays out the rules for foreign ownership of condo units in the country.

just in case that you do not consider, click here to refresh your information on what the law says approximately overseas condo ownership.

Condominiums can have outstanding Returns for You

As with every investment, your purchase of a condo unit can and need to give you excellent returns. it is able to feature more than just a place for you and your own family to stay in. let’s take, as an instance, which you’re a businessman who has to often go to Thailand each year on official matters. You stay 30 days at a time, and then you move back to your home country to manage your business there. What takes place when you are long gone and there’s no one living within the unit?

Some people absolutely buy their condominium units as a preparation for their eventual move to Thailand in the future. even though it is still years away, some people do purchase condos already in advance. They then just make use of the condo as a method to make some money to at least recoup some of their investment in the unit.

You, too, can try this. if you have purchased a apartment unit which you depart within the care of a neighborhood Thai that has your self assurance, you ought to begin thinking about the way you, and probable your caretaker, could make cash out of that. the answer: sublease the condo unit.

It is LEGAL!

Because Thailand is such a lovely location, you may find your friends trying to go over to the country however they don’t have a place to stay. temporarily renting out your condominium unit to them is a good idea – you can work on cheap costs so that they’d want to pick staying at your condominium as opposed to going to a luxurious hotel and spend a whole lot of cash on astronomical accommodation prices. it’s far perfectly legal, because you are the proprietor of the condominium unit.

In the event that you are engaged in a long-term lease on the condo unit, but you aren’t staying there completely for now, you can negotiate a clause within the contract to allow for subleasing. that is the most effective way that you could legally rent out the condominium to your friends who are coming over to Thailand for a vacation. it would take a few negotiating and perhaps a few additional terms to your agreement, however it would absolutely be well worth the attempt for your part.

Real estate is certainly a tremendous investment everybody can make. With a condominium unit in Thailand, you’re establishing lots of doors of opportunities for yourself. It’s extra than just an area to call home in Thailand – it may also be a method to earn residual income.

Why Investing in Phuket is Good

Phuket Island is undeniably one of the world’s famous destination for travelers and expatriates alike who long for retirement or a quick vacation in Thailand. within the fourth area of 2012 on my own, the real estate market in Phuket Island had the sale of a total of 2,789 units to foreign buyersit has been discovered to be gradually moving up for in years on years, making the island an addition to the list of prime alternatives for the overseas investor.

However what does is it that makes overseas investors come flocking over to this extraordinary island in Thailand? well, there are three reasons behind for it – the lovely beachesthe numerous activities you can enjoy while staying in Phuket, and the distinctly inexpensive price of living inside the island.

How costly is it staying in Phuket?

Common price range of living in Phuket is quite low cost, as we’ve noted in advance. A  single meal in an cheaper restaurant for one individual costs less than of THB100 which costs only roughly$2.  A person can fulfill his hunger on a budget not less than $10 for a day! Adding in fuel prices are also low here, with an average price of $1 a liter. Although transportation can be a bit of an expense, there are cheaper option wherein you can rent a motorbike or car instead of paying for one way trips.

A place for relaxation and fun activities.


Phuket is a traveler’s hub, first and foremostit’s far best proper and even expected that there can be a number of activities for everyone who comes to the island. they are too numerous to be mentioned on this blog, so let’s just summarize the activitiesthere is a extensive variety of activities inside the island. you may cross on eco- tours and revel in nature on this side of the tropics. tourists can visit the beaches and interact in various water-based sports activities like sea kayaking, parasailing surfing and others, or you could take a cruise onboard a luxury yacht. Unique attractions in are also in Phuket such as the Baan Teelanka or the “upside down house.” or even you can go on a temple hopping tour around the island.

If you may not like doing some tours and island hopping, Phuket is where you could discover many white sand beaches! The island has an area of only 540-square kilometers, so residents and expats don’t need to drive very far to be able to enjoy sandy beaches and some sun. The weather inside the island is likewise favorable, with rains anticipated only at some point of may until October – those months mark the monsoon rain season for the island. In all different months, people can expect by and large sunny days which are perfect for heading over to the beach.

If you may want to live in Phuket, foreign expats are allowing themselves the chance to enjoy all that the island has to offer since it just outside their doorstep. Contact our business lawyer now and find out what it takes to invest on a property and business in Phuket Island. that is possibly the best investment any expat can make within the country of Thailand.



What to Choose? Condo or House & Lot?

In case you’re a Thai national, there isn’t a whole lot to consider whilst comparing those two kinds of real estate in Thailand. Locals can effortlessly buy these if they’re financially capable. For foreigners, howeverit’s far a different story. One needs to think in wisely about issues when it comes to choosing between those two real estate properties in Thailand.

Here at HWAL Legal We are able to differentiate the advantages and the disadvantages of purchasing a condo unit and purchasing land or a house-and-lot property in Thailand.

Purchasing a Condo

One of the advantages of buying a condo in Thailand is that it’s far very easy for you, as a foreigner, to accomplish that. Thai regulation allows for foreigners to have a hundred percent ownership of a condominium unit in the countrywithout having to set up a corporation or business in the countryprovided that the allocated percentage of the entire number of units in the condo for foreign ownership has no longer yet been bought out. You will notice in Thai regulation that it does permit foreigners to buy condos inside the country as long as the majority of the residents or unit proprietors in the entire project must be local Thais.

There is one downside to being an proprietor of a Thai condominium unit is that it comes with exorbitant feesthose fees are used to for renovation expenses just like the security in the project as well as the preservation for the elevators, the settling of monthly electric payments and other simple services.

Purchasing a house and lot

Most of the people, foreigners and locals alike, does prefer buying a plot of land or a house-and-lot propertythat is because owning your personal space is a lot more advantageous than buying a pre-furnished condo unit. you can pick out the lot location that you want for a lot, and you can design and construct the residence in line with your choices. However, this option is not as easy for foreigners or expatriates in Thailand.

Even if it is inexpensive to buy this type of real estate in Thailand, because it does not include the expenses associated with condominiums, it’s also risky most of the instances for foreigners. it’s far illegal, at this point, for foreigners to own these types of real estate until they do the following:

Marry a local Thai and buy the real estate in his or her name

only locals can purchase land inside the countryin case you are married to a local Thai, you could achieve this however you have to put the title in her name. It’s not terrible and it does what it is neededhowever you cannot put the belongings in your name within the unfortunate occasion that you and your partner might have to get an annulment or divorce.

own a business

If you’re planning to begin a organization in Thailand, you can purchase real estate by using putting it under the name of the organizationhowever, this business needs to be owned partially by means of locals as wellyou may be the single majority stockholder within the enterprise however there have to be some of locals in your board.

There you gothese are the comparisons that we could make in this blog in phrases of drawbacks and benefits in shopping condo unit or a lot in Thailand.